Keoladeo was originally the private duck hunting preserve of the Maharaja of Bharatpur. In the swamp the winter many water birds from Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, China and Siberia. Over 364 bird species including the rare crane nuns were observed.
The ecosystem of the park was created by man: The city of Bharatpur was regularly built flooded during the monsoon season to 1760 was the Ajan Dam. By the removal of the soil used for the dam construction was a depression that filled with water and the Keoladeo lake was.
Around the turn of the Keoladeo lake was modified for hunting grounds. The shallow lake was divided by dams. Was adjusted by means of sluices, the water level at the desired level. Shooting areas, hiding places and routes were created. Keoladeo was one of the best duck hunting areas in the world.
The hunt was the mid-1960s set. In 1981 the area was declared a National Park.
The park belongs since 1985 to the UNESCO World Heritage Site.